The Jewish community in Rome is the oldest community in the Diaspora and dates back to ancient times and two millennia of Jewish history.
The earliest synagogue in Rome can be found at No. 14 Vicolo dell'Atleta.
The Ghetto was established in 1555 by Pope Paul IV and went from the Tiber at Tiber Island to the Ponte Quattro capi, Via Portico d'Ottavia, via Ottavia, Piazza delle Cinque Scole. Today, some of the streets remain as they were.
Later Jews were active in the fight for unification of Italy.
Rome even had a Jewish mayor in Ernesto Nathan (1907-13) who shared liberal ideas with Giuseppe Mazzini.
Worth a visit is the Museum of the Liberation at no. 145 Via Tasso. A statue called the Martrs (1950) commemorates the massacre of citizens of Rome including 75 Jews in March 1944 by German soldiers.
In 1948 when the state of Israel was established, Roman Jews walked under the Arch of Titus, which goes back to early history, fulfilling the promise to do so when Israel was free.
Rome has a number of interesting sites to visit in order to understand the historic and complicated Jewish experience here which was finally acknowledged in a long overdue gesture by Pope John Paul II where he called the Jews older brothers for the first time.